Age of Exploration
Age of Exploration Vocabulary
Coalesce this is when separate items join together or when small things join to become a larger thing. Palatable something that tastes good enough to eat. Spice Islands also known as the East Indies. It is an area south of China that was known to produce the spices wanted in Europe Feudal(ism) the social structure in Europe during the Dark Ages. At the top was royalty, then priests/ and knights, next was merchants and traders, the bottom were peasants. *See the image below this table to get an illustration of the social structure of Feudalism in the Middle Ages Pope the leader of the Roman Catholic church Ottoman Empire a large area of land in North Africa, the Middle East and South West Asia controlled by Muslim rulers Profit the money you earn AFTER you pay for what the item costs you Navigation determining where you are and where you are going Astrolabe/ Sextant an instrument used to navigate by measuring the location of the stars Caravan a group traveling, often by camel Caravel a fast, large, light and strong ship made for trade Dark Ages a war like time between 400AD and 1000AD in Europe Renaissance a period of time beginning about the year 1200AD when Europe began to civilize again after the Dark Ages. Age of Exploration A period of about 300 years where Europeans searched around the world mostly looking for ways to Asia and then for things in the New World. AD or CE
AD= Anno Domini (years of God in Latin)
CE= Common Era
This is the time after the Catholic calendar began to be used. Modern time.
BC or BCE BC= Before Christ/ BCE= Before the Common Era The time before the Catholic calendar began to be used. New World This refers to North America and South America. Europeans called them this because it was an entirely new place to them and was filled with things they had never seen before.
The image below might assist you in understanding the social structure in the Middle Ages.
Social Structure in the Middle Ages
Here is the image we were using in class to describe the locations of some of the places we discussed. Use it to assist you on coloring your map.
50 BC Roman Empire Begins 0 Birth of Christ/ Catholic Calendar begins 400 CE End of Roman Empire- Beginning of the Dark Ages 1200 CE End of the Dark Ages- Renaissance begins 1300 CE Marco Polo travels to China- Age of Exploration begins 1492 Columbus reaches the New World
Here are the links for the 4 short videos we saw over the last few days in class.
These next three videos are more from the collection above but we will not be watching them in class. If you are interested though... have a look.
Age of Exploration Quizlet https://quizlet.com/_6g4qv6
Age of Colonization
Here is the map we will use as a reference for the next few weeks.
Spanish Colonies Vocabulary
grant Give or donate something to someone circumnavigate Circle the earth conquistador Spanish conqueror Northwest Passage a way to get through North America to the Spice Islands colony land that is ruled by a country far away empire a country that controls many colonies borderlands land that separated two other lands hacienda a Spanish ranch self sufficient able to take care of your own issues mission/ missionary a person who travels to spread religion
French Colonies Vocabulary
civil war A fight between two sides within the same country royal colony A colony owned by the king proprietary colony A colony owned by a person picked by the king plantation A large farm usually to earn money fur trade The exchange of animal skins for other goods
English Colonies Vocabulary Part I
sea dog commander of an English ship that attacks Spanish or French ships privateers private citizens hired to attack Spanish ships pirate a thief on the sea or ocean raw material a resource that can be used to make a product natural resources something we can use found on earth man made resources something we can use made by humans labor resources workers capital resources $$$$$ armada A giant fleet of warships
English Colonies Vocabulary Part II
cash crop Things grown to be sold- tobacco, indigo, cotton, rice prosperity Doing well-having what you want legislature A group of people who make laws pilgrim A person who travels for religious reasons self rule control one's own government puritans Church of England followers, believed that religion had to be "pure" specializing Doing one particular job and doing it well frontier land beyond settled areas import product brought in export Product brought out
The textbook links keep failing to work for some reason. I'm working on them.
I. Spanish Conquerors- Wanted to take $$$ and convert or kill natives.
A. (Where) Florida, Mexico, Meso-America, Caribbean Islands, parts of South America
B.(Built) Missions, forts, haciendas, mines
C.(Treated Natives)slaves, murdered, died of many diseases
D.(Resources) Gold, Silver, other treasures
II. French Colonies-
A. Central North America in what is not the United States and Canada. Some Caribbean Islands
B. Proprietary colonies and some royal colonies
C. Trade partners (not BFFs)
D. Beaver fur, fish
III. English Colonies
A. North Central Canada, some Caribbean Islands, small parts of Meso-America, the Atlantic Coast of what is now the United States
B. Plantations for cash crops, small villages
C. Friends when needed, slaves or worse when they aren't needed
D. Tobacco, cotton, rice and indigo
The Road to Independence
The Journey Begins...
I. The French and Indian War (Seven Years War)
A. Begins in 1754, ends in 1763
B. French and their Indian allies fight against the English and their Indian allies.
C. 1763, the French lose. England takes over nearly all the French land in North America
D. King George promises land to both the Indians and to the colonists to get them to fight. At the end of the war he gives it to the Indians. The Colonists are angry.
II. After the War-
A. King George and Parliament must get $$$$ to pay war debts
B. They start with Sugar Act, then the Stamp Act- more to follow...
C. The Townsend Acts are begun but most are repealed (Not tea though)
III. Protests Begin-
A. Tax protests are begun. James Otis calls for citizens to not pay until they have representation in Parliament.
B. The Sons of Liberty begin to form. Protests turn more violent. (Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party)
C. Parliament cracks down with the "Intolerable Acts
1. More soldiers in the colonies
2. Taking the guns from the militia and citizens
3. Quartering soldiers in people's homes
4. No more trial by jury
5. Closes Boston Harbor
IV. Lexington and Concord-
A. British attempt to capture guns, ammunition from colonists.
B. British also want to capture the leadership of the Sons of Liberty.
C. Colonial Militia stand up to the Redcoats after being warned they were coming.
D. The War for Independence begins
Next Stop...Taxes, taxes and more taxes- but there is a deeper problem.
The chart below indicates some of the basic taxes that people in the US pay. These are just basics and the mix and the amounts vary from community to community.
- Property Tax - based on the value of your home, build and land. This is collected 1 or 2 times per years. You are usually sent a bill you must pay or risk losing your property.
- Income Tax - based on the amount of money you earn. It is taken regularly from your paycheck. Once a year you must do paperwork to make sure you have paid the right amount.
- Sales Tax - based on the amount of money you spend. This tax is added to what you spend when buying a product at the store. The store collects the tax but does NOT keep it.
- Miscellaneous taxes, fines, fees, licenses, registration, permits and tolls - these vary - e.g. sewer tax, streetlight taxes, hunting licenses, dog licenses, overdue book fines, traffic tickets, car registrations, gun registrations, building permits, highway tolls and bridge tolls.
- "Sin" Tax - Examples include taxes on tobacco, liquor and gas. These taxes are used to control how much of something is used, or to pay for its effects such as healthcare, safety or pollution problems.
UH-OH, a nasty turn towards war....
representation having someone to speak for you or stand up for you treason turning against your own country boycott to protest by not buying a product congress a group of people who gather for a particular purpose declaration a formal statement repeal to take back or undo something liberty the ability to make your own choices Sugar Act The first of the taxes used to pay back the $ owed for the French and Indian War Stamp Act The second tax to pay back for the French and Indian War. It was a tax on paper. The stamp just showed you paid it. Townshend Acts A tax on tea, glass, lead etc. Mostly repealed except the tax on tea monopoly When there is only one owner controlling a product or service blockade This is blocking off a port or harbor from ships quarter to provide a place to live intolerable unbearable, you can't take it anymore petition a letter about fixing a problem, often signed by many people
Here are the links to the "Liberty Kids" videos we watched in class.
Powers of Government-
Government exists whenever a group of people begin to organize. There are many ways to organize but all are forms of government. The purpose of a government is to stop chaos or allow people to work together.
To work, a government must be able to do three things or have three "powers".
The power to make rules or laws. This is known as the power to legislate or Legislative Power
The power to enforce ( make people follow) laws. This is known as the power to execute or Executive Power.
The power to decide if things are good or not. This is known as the power to judge or Judicial Power.
Without all three powers a government cannot work.
Forms of government-
There are an almost infinite number of ways to make the powers happen. The chart below will only show a few of the more common ones.
(rule through religion)
(rule by ALL the people)
(rule by representatives of the people)
(rule by each individual for him/herself)
Who it benefits
**Who has Legislative Power
**Who has Executive Power
**Who has Judicial Power
good if you are that religion
not good if you are of any other belief Very, very slooooowwww
Slow at times
Declaration of Independence-
A. Declares (states) we want to be apart from England and start our own country.
B. Declares that in this country all men will be treated equally and have the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
C. Declares the reasons that we left England. (Intolerable Acts, unfair laws, no representation Parliament, taxes...)
Constitution- the "rule book" for our government
A. Broken up into 'articles' Each one sets up a part of the government.
1. Article 1 explains the "Legislative Branch"
2. Article 2 explains the "Executive Branch"
3. Article 3 explains the "Judicial Branch"
4. More articles that cover miscellaneous things
BILL OF RIGHTS: the first 10 Amendments (changes) to the Constitution
1. Passed all together at the same time
2. List the things that our government cannot take away from the people. (Mostly a reaction to the Intolerable Acts)
Declaration of Independence A document that tells the world we are no longer English Constitution A written plan of government Bill An idea for a new law Law rules by a government Legislative make laws Executive enforce laws Judicial judge laws Congress House of Representatives and the Senate President Chief Executive (Chief "Enforcer") Supreme Court Judges 'constitutionality' of laws Senate one of the two parts of our Congress. It favors the small states House of Representatives The other part of Congress. It favors the larger states Veto The President's ability to refuse a bill Bill of Rights A list of the first 10 rights added to the Constitution Override skip over (go past or cancel) the president's veto Amendment A change or addition to the Constitution Checks and Balances a system of government that allows two of the branches authority over the other one